THE SCIENCE
quality of life scales

a collection of useful scale evaluation articles

EQ5D :: Euroqol five dimensions

Five item scale measuring Quality of Life across domains: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. EQ5D has very extensive translation and normative data from different cultures. The scoring is best computerised.

Addiction related journal articles

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⓵ van der Zanden BP, Dijkgraaf MG, Blanken P, de Borgie CA, van Ree JM, van den Brink W. (2006) Validity of the EQ-5D as a generic health outcome instrument in a heroin-dependent population. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 82(2):111-8

DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.08.012 

Convergent validity EQ5D correlates with MAP 0.16 to 0.47; with SCL 0.24 to 0.62; with ASI 0.12 to 0.53. 

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⓶ Nosyk B, Sun H, Guh DP, Oviedo-Joekes E, Marsh DC, Brissette S, Schechter MT, Anis AH. (2010) The quality of eight health status measures were compared for chronic opioid dependence. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 63(10):1132-44

DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.12.003

Discriminant validity AUC drug use 0.59 (index) 0.58 (visual analogue)

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⓷ Chang C. Outcome Measurements in Economic Evaluations of Drug Misuse Interventions [PhD thesis]. University of York; 2010

Available from the University of York library

Change 54% non changers.

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⓸ Essex HN, White IR, Khadjesari Z, Linke S, McCambridge J, Murray E, Parrott S, Godfrey C. (2014) Quality of life among hazardous and harmful drinkers: EQ-5D over a 1-year follow-up period. Quality of Life Research 23(2):733-43

DOI: 10.1007/s11136-013-0521-7

Construct validity limited coverage of constructs.

General journal articles

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ⓐ EuroQol Group. (1990) EuroQol - a new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Policy 16(3):199-208

PMID 10109801

Original description of the scale. Internal consistency severity ranking 0.98 in 3 populations.

 

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ⓑ Stochl J, Croudace T, Perez J, Birchwood M, Lester H, Marshall M, Amos T, Sharma V, Fowler D, Jones PB; National Eden Study Team. (2013) Usefulness of EQ-5D for evaluation of health-related quality of life in young adults with first-episode psychosis. Quality of Life Research 22(5):1055-63

DOI: 10.1007/s11136-012-0222-7 

Construct validity limited coverage of constructs

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ⓒ Mulhern B, Mukuria C, Barkham M, Knapp M, Byford S, Soeteman D, Brazier J. (2014) Using generic preference-based measures in mental health: psychometric validity of the EQ-5D and SF-6D. The British Journal of Psychiatry 205(3):236

DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.122283 

Convergent validity EQ5D correlates with HADS -0.36; with PBRS-E -0.42. Floor and ceiling rate 0/13.9% (index) 0.4/0.4% (visual analogue); ceiling 20.7 to 34.2 post treatment.

WHOQOL-BREF :: World Health Organisation Quality of Life Brief

The WHOQOL project has extensive normative data. The brief scale has 26 items from each of the 24 QOL facets included in the longer form plus two ‘benchmark’ items on overall QOL and general health. The BREF yields four domain scores: physical, psychological, social and environmental. 

Addiction related journal articles

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⓵ Tracy EM, Laudet AB, Min MO, Kim H, Brown S, Jun MK, Singer L. (2012) Prospective patterns and correlates of quality of life among women in substance abuse treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 124(3):242

DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.01.010 

Change significant change in mean scores: physical > psychological > social > environment.

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⓶ Fu TS, Tuan Y, Yen M, Wu W, Huang C, Chen W, Lee CS, Lee TS. Psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Quality Of Life Assessment-Brief in methadone patients: a validation study in northern Taiwan. Harm Reduction Journal 10(1):37

DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-10-37

Internal consistency‣  alpha 0.76 to 0.87. Construct validity‣ acceptable fit with hypothesised domains. Floor & ceiling rate‣ low for domain scores 0-1%; floor effects >20% for positive feelings, finances; ceiling >20% for dependence on medication.

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⓷ Moreira TdC, Figueiró LR, Fernandes S, Justo FM, Dias IR, Barros HMT, Ferigolo M. (2013) Quality of life of users of psychoactive substances, relatives, and non-users assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva 18(7):1953-1962

PMID: 23827899

Convergent validity‣ WHOQOL-BREF ŵ WHOQOL for users, relatives, controls.

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⓸ Teoh Bing Fei J, Yee A, Habil MHB. (2016) Psychiatric comorbidity among patients on methadone maintenance therapy and its influence on quality of life. The American Journal on Addictions 25(1):49-55

DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12317 

Convergent validity  WHOQOL-BREF correlates with diagnosis of DSM axis I disorders -0.20; with WHOQOL; with OTI health -0.14.

General journal articles

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ⓐ WHOQOL Group. (1998) Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF Quality of Life Assessment. Psychological Medicine 28(3):551-8

PMID: 9626712

Description of the development of the brief version. Internal consistency‣  alpha 0.66 to 0.84;  test-retest 0.56-0.84. Construct validity‣ acceptable fit with hypothesised domains. Concurrent validity WHOQOL-BREF correlates with WHOQOL 0.89 to 0.95. Discriminant validity all domains discriminate people who are ill from those who are well.

SF12 :: Short Form Health Survey

The short 12 item scale covers mainly psychological and physical health - a subset of SF36 accounts for over 90% of SF36. The Quality Framework scores are an underestimate given high correlation with the extensively evaluated SF36. The scoring best computerised.

Addiction related journal articles

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⓵ Pyne JM, French M, McCollister K, Tripathi S, Rapp R, Booth B. (2008) Preference-weighted health-related quality of life measures and substance use disorder severity. Addiction 103(8):1320-9

DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02153.x 

Convergent validity SF12 correlates with ASI subscales: medical -0.38, drug -0.33, family -0.35, psychiatric -0.65; no correlation with three other subscales .

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⓶ Bourion-Bédès S, Schwan R, Laprevote V, Bédès A, Bonnet J, Baumann C. (2015) Differential item functioning (DIF) of SF-12 and Q-LES-Q-SF items among french substance users. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 13(1):172

DOI: 10.1186/s12955-015-0365-7

An item analysis. Internal consistency‣ no major bias in different substance user group

General journal articles

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ⓐ Ware JE, Kosinski M, Keller SD. (1996) A 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey: Construction of Scales and Preliminary Tests of Reliability and Validity. Medical Care 34(3):220-33 📚 Original scale description PMID: 8628042

Description of the scale development. Internal consistency test-retest0.63 to 0.91. Convergent validity  SF12 correlates with SF36 validity tests: physical component 0.67; mental component 0.97. 

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ⓑ Gandek B, Ware JE, Aaronson NK, Apolone G, Bjorner JB, Brazier JE, Bullinger M, Kaasa S, Leplege A, Prieto L, Sullivan M. (1998) Cross-Validation of Item Selection and Scoring for the SF-12 Health Survey in Nine Countries. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 51(11):1171-8 📚 Cross cultural validation PMID: 9817135

Concurrent validity SF12 correlates with SF36 in 9 countries: physical component 0.94 to 0.96; mental component 0.94 to 0.97.

PSWS :: Psycho Social Wellbeing Scale

Addiction related journal articles

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⓵ O'Hare T, Cutler J, Sherrer MV, McCall TM. (2001) Co-occurring psychosocial distress and substance abuse in community clients: Intitial validity and reliability of self-report measures. Community Mental Health Journal 37(6):481

PMID not found

Describes the development of a practitioner rated 12 item measure aimed at the relationship between substance misuse and mental health and social wellbeing - two subscales measure psychological and social well-being. Internal consistency alpha 0.66 to 0.80. Construct validity‣ three factors accounting for 71% of the variance: psychological well-being, social well-being,  global substance abuse index; factor loadings 0.66 to 092; two factor model with 8 items loading 0.45 to 0.8.

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⓶ O'hare T, Sherrer MV, Cutler J, McCall TM, Dominique K, Garlick K. (2002) Validating the Psychosocial Weil-Being Scale (PSWS) with Community Clients. Social Work in Mental Health 1(2):15-30

PMID: 12723846 

Internal consistency alpha 0.79 to 0.84 with normal distribution. Construct validity‣ subscale correlation: PSWS/psychological correlates with PSWS/health 0.42;  PSWS/psychological with PSWS/interpersonal 0.46;  PSWS/interpersonal with PSWS/health 0.35. Convergent validity  PSWS correlates with psychiatrist global functioning rating -0.41 ;  with case manager medication compliance rating -0.20.

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⓷ O'Hare T, Sherrer MV, Connery HS, Thornton J, LaButti A, Emrick K. (2003) Further Validation of the Psycho-Social Well-Being Scale (PSWS) with Community Clients. Community Mental Health Journal 39(2):115-29

PMID: 12723846

Convergent validity‣  PSWS/psychological correlates with BPRS/resistance −0.70, BPRS/positive symptoms −0.61, BPRS/negative symptoms −0.27, BPRS/psychological distress −0.40;  PSWS/psychological correlates with AUS −0.35, DUS −0.31; PSWS/social correlates with BPRS/resistance −0.52, BPRS/positive symptoms −0.25, BPRS/negative symptoms −0.42, BPRS/psychological distress −.028;  PSWS/social correlates with AUS −0.33, DUS −0.26; PSWS/substance correlates with AUS −0.85, DUS -0.67.