psychological wellbeing scales

a collection of useful scale evaluation articles

CORE10 :: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation

Addiction related journal article

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⓵ Raistrick DS, Tober GW, Sweetman J, Unsworth S, Crosby H, & Evans T (2014) Measuring clinically significant outcomes – LDQ, CORE-10, and SSQ as dimension measures of addiction. The Psychiatrist 38: 112-115

DOI: 10.1192/pb.bp.112.041301 

Outcomes in an addiction population. Construct validity nine items load >0.4 Q2 'support' correlates with social satisfaction

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⓶ Fairhurst CM, Böhnke JR, Gabe R, Croudace TJ, Tober GW, Raistrick D (2014) Factor analysis of treatment outcomes from a UK specialist addiction service: relationship between the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Social Satisfaction Questionnaire and CORE-10Drug and Alcohol Review 33: 643-650

DOI: 10.1111/dar.12146

Modelling of outcome categories for LDQ, CORE10 and SSQ.

General journal articles

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ⓐ Andrews W, Twigg E, Minami T, Johnson G. (2011) Piloting a practice research network: a 12-month evaluation of the Human Givens approach in primary care at a general medical practice. Psychology and Psychotherapy 84(4): 389-405

DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8341.2010.02004

Outcomes in primary care.  Change Human Givens 9.2.

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ⓑ Barkham M, Bewick B, Mullin T, Gilbody S, Connell J, Cahill J, Mellor-Clark J, Richards D, Unsworth G and Evans C. (2013) The CORE-10: A short measure of psychological distress for routine use in the psychological therapiesCounselling and Psychotherapy Research  13: 3-13

PMID: not found

Description of the development of a 10 item scale measuring the single construct psychological distress derived fro CORE-OM - clinically significant change values reported. Internal consistency alpha male 0.81 female 0.82. Change mean change score in counselling 10.9. Acceptability Flesch Readability 79.9 (easy). Convergent validity CORE10 correlates with Symptom Check List 0.81; BDI 0.77; BAI 0.65; PHQ9 0.56. Concurrent validity CORE10 correlates with COREOM 0.94. Discriminant validity mean score 19.7 clinical versus 4.7 in the general population; cutoff ≥13 for a diagnosis of depression: sensitivity 92% specificity 72%.

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ⓒ Schibbye P, Ghaderi A, Ljótsson B, Hedman E, Lindefors N, Rück C, et al. (2014) Using Early Change to Predict Outcome in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: Exploring Timeframe, Calculation Method, and Differences of Disorder-Specific versus General Measures. PLoS One 9(6)


Week 4 best time to predict condition specific outcome. Convergent validity CORE10 correlates with OQ-45 0.82.

DASS21 :: Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale

Addiction related journal articles

None found

General journal articles

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ⓐ Antony MM, Bieling PJ, Cox BJ, Enns MW and Swinson RP (1998) Psychometric Properties of the 42-Item and 21-Item Versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in Clinical Groups and a Community SamplePsychological Assessment 2: 176-181

PMID not found

Review of psychometrics of 21 item scale measuring the constructs depression, anxiety, stress - an overall psychological distress score. Internal consistency alpha depression 0.94; anxiety 0.87; stress 0.91. Construct validity all items loaded >0.5 on the hypothesised sub-scales accounting for 60% of variance. 

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ⓑ Henry JD and Crawford JR (2005) The short-form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 44: 227-239

DOI: 10.1348/014466505X29657

DASS21 as general psychological distress measure. Construct validity mean loadings on a general distress factor 0.60 on specific factors 0.34.

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ⓒ Ng F, Trauer T, Dodd S, Callaly T, Campbell S, Berk M. (2007) The validity of the 21-item version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) as a routine clinical outcome measureActa Neuropsychiatrica 19: 304–310

DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5215.2007.00217.x

Change in in-patient population  mean HoNOS 9.3 to 3.3;  DASS21 24.8 to 13.9. Convergent validity  DASS21 correlates with MHQ14 0.75.

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ⓓ Gloster AT, Rhoades HM, Novy D, Klotsche J, Senior A, Kunik M, Wilson N and Stanley MA (2008) Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in older primary care patients. Journal of Affective Disorders 110:248-259  📚 Validity in older population DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2008.01.023

Internal consistency alpha 0.94. Convergent validity: subscales correlate - DASS21 depression with BDI 0.76; QOLI -0.58;  DASS21 anxiety with BAI 0.73; QOLI -0.19;  DASS21 stress with BAI 0.59; PANAS-N 0.74; QOLI -0.33. Discriminant validity‣ mood disorder sensitivity 83% specificity 62%; anxiety disorder sensitivity 65% specificity 68%.

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ⓔ Osman A, Wong JL, Bagge CL, Freedenthal S, Gutierrez PM, Lozano G. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales—21 (DASS‐21): Further Examination of Dimensions, Scale Reliability, and Correlates. Journal of Clinical Psychology 2012;68(12):1322-38

DOI: 10.1002/jclp.21908

An exploration of different factor models. Construct validity single factor 'general distress' stronger than hypothesised sub-scales.

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ⓕ Crawford JR & Henry JD. (2003) The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): Normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 42, 111–131

DOI: 10.1348/014466503321903544

Normative data. Internal consistency sub-scales correlate together - depression with stress 0.72, depression with anxiety 0.71, stress with anxiety 0.72. Concurrent validity  subscales correlate - DASS depression with sAD 0.78; HADS 0.66; PANASp -0.48; PANASn 0.60;  DASS anxiety with sAD 0.72; HADS 0.62.

SOS10 :: Schwartz Outcome Scale

Addiction related journal articles


⓵ Haggerty G, Aflatoon K, Ghosh K, Babalola R, Ahmed Z and Alois A (2012) Construct Validity of the Schwartz Outcome Scale Validation Using a 28-Day Inpatient Chemical Rehabilitation Patient Sample. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders 200: 343-348  📚 Useful in addiction population DOI: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e31824cc210

Convergent validity SOS10 correlates with TAS20 (emotional expression) -0.29;  RPTdo -0.20; RPTdd -0.32; RPThd 0.62.

General journal articles

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ⓐ Blais MA, Lenderking WR, Baer L, deLorell A, Peets K, Leahy L and Burns C (1999) Development and Initial Validation of a Brief Mental Health Outcome Measure. Journal of Personality Assessment 73: 359-373  📚 Original scale description DOI: 10.1207/S15327752JPA7303_5

Description of development of a 10 item scale measuring the single construct psychological health. Internal consistency: alpha 0.94. Construct validity single factor accounting for 76% of the variance. Convergent validity SOS10 correlates with Wellbeing scale 0.86; Desire to Live 0.86; Satisfaction with Life 0.78;  PANASp 0.67; Self Esteem Scale 0.81; SF12 (mental health) 0.76; SF12 (physical health) 0.76. Discriminant validity  SOS10 does not correlate with Psychiatric Symptoms Scale -0.66;  Beck Hopelessness -0.64;  PANASn -0.72; Fatigue Scale -0.75. Floor and ceiling no limits found.

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ⓑ Young JL, Waehler CA, Laux JM, McDaniel PS and Hilsenroth MJ (2003) Four Studies Extending the Utility of the Schwartz Outcome Scale (SOS–10). Journal of Personality Assessment 80: 130-138  📚Added validation DOI: 10.1207/S15327752JPA8002_02

Internal consistency test-retest  retest 0.86. Change mean change 11.6 range -11 to 34. Convergent validity SOS10 correlates with RISB Maladjustment Scale -0.56. Concurrent validity SOS10 correlates with  Outcomes Questionnaire (distress) -0.84. 


Search terms used to identify psychological wellbeing scales:

Athens search of Psychinfo: (("psychological wellbeing" OR "psychological health" OR "psychological distress") AND (addiction OR substance OR dependence) AND (questionnaire OR scale) AND (psychometric OR development OR evaluation)).ti,ab [Limit to: Publication Year 1980-2016 and Abstract included and (Record type Journal Article) and (Language English) and (Age group Adulthood 18 Yrs & Older) and (Population Human) and (Classification Behavioral & Psychological Treatment of Physical Illness OR Clinical Psychological Testing OR Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation OR Drug & Alcohol Usage Legal OR Health Psychology & Medicine OR Health Psychology Testing)]