THE SCIENCE
mental health scales

a collection of useful scale evaluation articles

PHQ9 :: Patient Health Questionnaire and

GAD7 :: Generalised Anxiety Disorder

Addiction related journal articles

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⓵  Delgadillo J. (2012) Depression and anxiety symptoms: measuring reliable change in alcohol and drug users. Advances in Dual Diagnosis 5(3):102-14

DOI: 10.1108/17570971211253685 

Describes cut offs & reliable change scores PHQ9 ≥7 & GAD7  ≥5. Concurrent validity PHQ9 correlates with research interview 0.76. Discriminant validity PHQ9 cutoff ≥12 86% specificity for depression diagnosed by research interview; GAD7 cutoff ≥8 89% specificity for anxiety diagnosed by research interview.

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⓶  Delgadillo J, Payne S, Gilbody S, Godfrey C, Gore S, Jessop D, Dale V. (2011) How reliable is depression screening in alcohol and drug users? A validation of brief and ultra-brief questionnaires. Journal of Affective Disorders 134(1):266-71

DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.06.017 

Discriminant validity PHQ9 cutoff ≥12 for diagnosis of depression by research interview: sensitivity 81%; specificity 75%;  AUC 0.86.

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⓷ Dum M, Pickren J, Sobell LC, Sobell MB. (2008) Comparing the BDI-II and the PHQ-9 with outpatient substance abusers. Addictive Behaviors 33(2):381-7

DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.09.017 

Internal consistency alpha 0.90. Construct validity single factor accounting for 59.6% of variance. Convergent validity: PHQ9 correlates with AUDIT 0.26. Concurrent validity PHQ9 correlates with BDI-II 0.84.

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⓸ Delgadillo J, McMillan D, Leach C, Lucock M, Gilbody S & Wood N. (2012) Benchmarking Routine Psychological Services: A Discussion of Challenges and MethodsBehavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 42(1):16-30

DOI: 10.1017/S135246581200080X 

Primary care population. Change potential PHQ9 baseline mean score 14.1 (sd 6.4) post treatment 8.9 (sd 6.9); GAD7 baseline mean score 12.6 (sd 5.3) post treatment 7.9 (sd 5.9).

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⓹ Delgadillo J, Payne S, Gilbody S, Godfrey C, Gore S, Jessop D, Dale V. (2012) Brief case finding tools for anxiety disorders: validation of GAD-7 and GAD-2 in addictions treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 125(1-2):37-42

DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.03.011 

Internal consistency alpha 0.91. Discriminant validity GAD7 cutoff ≥9 for diagnosis of depression by research interview: sensitivity 80%; specificity 86%; AUC any anxiety 0.88, general anxiety 0.73.

 

General journal articles

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ⓐ Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. (2006) A Brief Measure for Assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine 166(10):1092-7  

DOI: 10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092

Description of 7 item scale development.

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ⓑ Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. (2001) The PHQ-9: The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine 16(9):606-13

PMID: 11556941 

Description of 9 item scale development.

PCL :: Post-traumatic Stress Checklist

Addiction related journals

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⓵ Bollinger AR, Cuevas CA, Vielhauer MJ, Morgan EE, Keane TM. (2008) The Operating Characteristics of the PTSD Checklist in Detecting PTSD in HIV+ Substance Abusers. Journal of Psychological Trauma 7(4):213-34  

PMID: not found

Internal consistency alpha 0.94. Discriminant validity PCL cutoff ≥52 for diagnosis of PTSD by clinical assessment has sensitivity 71%, specificity 84%.

General journal articles

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ⓐ Wilkins KC, Lang AJ, Norman SB. (2011) Synthesis of the psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist (PCL) military, civilian, and specific versions. Depression and Anxiety 28(7):596-606

DOI: 10.1002/da.20837

Review of psychometrics. Internal consistency test-retest reliability 0.0.75 to 0.88; alpha 0.83 to 0.96. Construct validity four factors: re-experience, avoidance, numbing, arousal. Concurrent validity PCL correltes with clinical assessment 0.79; Mississipi PTSD scale 0.90.

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ⓑ Asmundson GJG, Frombach I, McQuaid J, Pedrelli P, Lenox R, Stein MB. (2000) Dimensionality of posttraumatic stress symptoms: a confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV symptom clusters and other symptom models. Behaviour Research and Therapy 38(2):203-14

PMID: 10661004

Construct validity four factors: re-experience, avoidance, numbing, arousal.

LTE :: List of Threatening Experiences

Addiction related journal articles

None found

General journal articles

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ⓐ Motrico E, Moreno-Küstner B, de Dios Luna J, Torres-González F, King M, Nazareth I,  Montón-Franco C, Gilde Gómez-Barragán MJ, Sánchez-Celaya M,Díaz-Barreiros MÁ, Vicens C, Moreno-Peral P, Bellón JÁ. (2013) Psychometric properties of the List of Threatening Experiences--LTE and its association with psychosocial factors and mental disorders according to different scoring methods. Journal of Affective Disorders 150(3):931-40

DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.017 

A 12 item list of possible threatening situations typically used with PTSD screening scale. Internal consistency alpha 0.44; test-retest reliability 0.86. Construct validity four factors accounting for 61% of variance  - factor 1: spouse & relationships; factor 2: employment & financial; factor 3: personal; factor 4: illness & loss. Convergent validity LTE odds ratio with depression 1.64 to 2.57; with anxiety 1.35 to 1.97; with alcohol dependence 2.86 to 4.80.

ⓑ Rosmalen JGM, Bos EH, de Jonge P. (2012) Validation of the Long-term Difficulties Inventory (LDI) and the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) as measures of stress in epidemiological population-based cohort studies. Psychological Medicine 42(12):1-10

DOI: 10.1017/S0033291712000608

Internal consistency test-retest reliability 0.66. Convergent validity LTE correlates with SCL8 0.27; GHQ12 0.21; neuroticism 0.20.

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ⓒ Brugha TS & Cragg D. (1990) The List of Threatening Experiences: the reliability and validity of a brief life events questionnaire. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 82(1):77-81

PMID: 2399824

Internal consistency kappa for informant with questionnaire 0.7 to 0.9;  kappa for item retest at 6mth 0.78 to 1.0 (except stolen property 0.24). Discriminant validity at 6mth sensitivity 89%  specificity 74%.

PQ-B :: Prodromal Questionnaire - Brief

Addiction related journal articles

None found

General journal articles

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ⓐ Loewy RL, Pearson R, Vinogradov S, Bearden CE, Cannon TD. (2011) Psychosis risk screening with the Prodromal Questionnaire — Brief Version (PQ-B). Schizophrenia Research 129(1):42-6

DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2011.03.029 

Description of development of 21 item scale to identify prodromal or actual psychosis. Internal consistency alpha 0.85. Concurrent validity research interview correlates with positive symptoms 0.65, negative symptoms 0.50, disorganised symptoms 0.59, general symptoms 0.60. Discriminant validity PQ-B cutoff ≥4 for diagnosis of prodromal/psychotic state: sensitivity 89%, specificity 58%, PPV 93%, NPV 46%.

 

Search terms used to identify mental health scales:

Athens search of Psychinfo: ((anxiety OR depression OR PTSD OR psychosis OR "borderline personality disorder") AND (addiction OR substance OR dependence) AND (questionnaire OR scale) AND (psychometric OR development OR evaluation)).ti,ab [Limit to: Publication Year 1980-2016 and Abstract included and (Record type Journal Article) and (Language English) and (Age group Adulthood 18 Yrs & Older) and (Population Human) and (Classification Behavioral & Psychological Treatment of Physical Illness OR Clinical Psychological Testing OR Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation OR Drug & Alcohol Usage Legal OR Health Psychology & Medicine OR Health Psychology Testing)]; 80 results.