A summary of selected scales
❝ not everything that matters can be measured and not everything that is measured matters ❞

Elliot Iesner from Albert Einstein

📈  The red chart icon denotes scales that are included in self completion packages on RESULT - go to Test Myself

📉  The blue chart icon denotes scales that are evaluated on comparison pages on RESULT

On this page

Dependence Scales

Substance Use Measures

Psychosocial Scales

Recovery Scales

Mental Health Scales 

For more technical information on the evaluation and scoring of scales and measures go to the ⏱  Quality Framework 

Dependence Scales

For a comparison of selected scales go to

 LDQ ::: Leeds Dependence Questionnaire

📈    View LDQ 

 The LDQ is a 10 item measure of substance dependence. Designed to inform treatment planning in routine clinical practice or a self directed intervention.

SDS ::: Severity of Dependence Scale

📉   View SDS

The SDS is a five item scale specifically concerned with the individual's feelings of impaired control. Designed as a brief research tool to screen for dependence.

SDSQ ::: Severity of Dependence Screening Questionnaire

📉  permission to reproduce requested

The SDSQ is an 11 item scale which includes quantity and frequency. Designed to detect dependence in general populations.  

SDSS ::: Substance Dependence Severity Scale

📉  permission to reproduce requested

The SDSS is a semi-structured clinical interview with 8-11 items per substance. Designed to diagnose DSM-IV dependence and abuse. 

SADQ ::: Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire

📉   View SADQ

The SADQ is a 20 item scale specific to alcohol and focussed on withdrawal symptoms. Designed to assess dependence while drinking.

ADS ::: Alcohol Dependence Scale

🌐  Licence fees apply

The ADS is a 25-item multiple-choice questionnaire. Designed to emphasise a dimensional approach to the syndrome marking the progression of severity.

 

FTND ::: Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence

📈    View FTND

The FTND is a six item scale derived from the FTQ. Designed to identify five levels of nicotine dependence and inform treatment planning. 

SODQ ::: Severity of Opiate Dependence Questionnaire

📚   DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1986.tb00360.x

The SODQ is a 36 item scale following the structure of the SADQ and SAmDQ. Designed to measure dependence as a continuum.

SAmDQ ::: Severity of Amphetamine Dependence Questionnaire

📚   PMID: 8251870

The SAmDQ is a 21 item scale following the structure of the SADQ and SODQ. Designed to measure dependence as a continuum.

BDEPQ ::: Benzodiazepine Dependence Questionnaire

📚   PMID: 8879712

The BDEPQ is a 30 item scale enquiring about benzodiazepine experience. Designed to measure the full scope of benzodiazepine dependence syndrome.

BQDS ::: Betel Quid Dependence Questionnaire

📚   DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.07.027

The BQDS is an 18 item scale specific to betel quid chewing. Designed to measure DSM dependence criteria along a continuum.

Substance Use Measures

For a comparison of selected measures go to

SUSS ::: Substance Use for Specialist Services

📈    View SUSS

SUSS measures frequency of use of nine drugs and injecting, quantity for alcohol and tobacco, and use of prescribed medications.

AUDIT-C ::: Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (consumption)

📉    View AUDIT

AUDIT-C is the first three consumption questions of the full 10 item AUDIT and typically is used as a screen for the full scale.

DUDIT ::: Drug Use Disorders Identification Test

 🌐  Available at EMCDDA

DUDIT is an 11 item screening tool following the structure of AUDIT. Developed to identify non-alcohol drug use patterns.

 

TLFB ::: Time Line Follow Back

🌐  Available at Nova Southeastern University

Not so much a measure as a method.  Templates are available to facilitate use of TLFB. In essence the tools help to assess use by using important events as aides memoirs.

PDUQ :: Prescription Drug Use Questionnaire

📚  DOI: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2007.11.006 

Specific to opioid use in patients with pain. A 25 item rater administered scale asking about prescription use, opioid abuse, and dependence.

 

 

    Psychosocial Scales

    For a comparison of selected scales go to

    CORE-10 ::: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation

    📈   View CORE10

    The CORE-10 is a ten item scale measuring psychological distress which is also a screening questionnaire for the identification of mental illness.

    DASS21 ::: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales

    📉   View DASS

    The DASS21 is a 21 item scale designed to discriminate between depression, anxiety, and stress. It is a short version of DASS.

    SOS10 ::: Schwartz Outcome Scale

    📉   View SOS

    A 10 item scale designed as a general treatment outcome measure across a range of treatment settings and modalities. Intended to have broad scope.

    BNSG ::: Basic Needs Satisfaction in General

    📉  permission to reproduce requested

    The BNSG is a 21 item scale measuring hypothesised basic human needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.  

    EQ5D ::: EuroQol Five Dimensions

     🌐  Register to Use

    The EQ5D uses five questions to tap five dimensions of health status. It is a simple, generic measure of health for clinical and especially economic appraisal.

     

    SSQ ::: Social Satisfaction Questionnaire

    📈   View SSQ

    The SSQ is an eight item scale. By measuring social satisfaction the scale is designed to be relevant equally to all socioeconomic groups.

    WHOQOL-BREF  Brief WHO Quality of Life

    🌐  Register to Use 

    The WHOQOL-BREF contains 26 items derived from the long version and tapping into facets of quality of life and of general health.

    SF20 ::: Short Form Health Survey

    📉   View SF20

    The SF-20 is a brief derivative of the SF-36. Designed with the focus on overall physical, mental health, and economic outcomes.

    PSWS ::: Psycho Social Wellbeing Scale

    📉   View PSWS

    The twelve items that comprise the PSWS are practitioner rated. Items cover twelve problem areas that are associated with quality of life.

    K10 & K6 ::: Brief Screening Questionnaires

     🌐 Available at the National Comorbidity Survey

    Ten and six item scales. Designed for epidemiological surveys. A complex scoring system to maximise sensitivity requires computerised scoring.

    Recovery Scales

    For a comparison of selected scales go to

    ARQ ::: Addiction Recovery Questionnaire

    📈   View ARQ

    The ARQ is a 12 item scale with three subscales: normal living, optimism, and abstinence. Designed for monitoring the strength of recovery.

    TPS ::: Twelve Promises Scale

    📉   View TPS

    The TPS measures expected benefits of the 12 step fellowship. The scale has 26 items and two subscales: psychological wellbeing and absence of craving.

    SATS ::: Substance Abuse Treatment Scale

    📉   View SATS

    The SATS is a practitioner rated measure for people with complex problems such as 'dual diagnosis' and assigns one of eight motivational states.

     

    ARC ::: Assessment of Recovery Capital

    📉   View ARC

    The ARC has 50 items measuring personal and social resources covering 10 domains of recovery. Designed as a comprehensive treatment planning tool.

    LiRS ::: Life in Recovery Survey

    📉    permission to reproduce requested

    The LiRS is designed for conducting surveys and has normative data. The 37 items comprehensively cover recovery and compare 'in treatment' with 'in recovery' responses.

    Mental Health Scales

    For a comparison of selected scales go to

    PHQ9 ::: Patient Health Questionnaire

    📈   View PHQ9

    The PHQ9 is a commonly used nine item scale which can be utilised to suggest a diagnosis of depression or to monitor depression symptom severity.

    PCL ::: Post Traumatic Stress Checklist

    📈   View PCL

    The PCL is a 17 item scale to monitor severity of post traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Can be used to suggest a diagnosis of PTSD.

    LTE ::: List of Traumatic Experiences

    📈  permission to reproduce requested

    The LTE is not so much a scale as a listing of traumatic events. There are 12 items which can be taken individually or grouped. Typically used with PTSD screening.

     

    GAD7 ::: Generalised Anxiety Disorder

    📈  View GAD7

    The GAD7 is a commonly used seven item scale which can be utilised to suggest a diagnosis of anxiety or to monitor anxiety symptom severity.  

    PQ-B ::: Prodromal Questionnaire Brief

    📈  View PQ-B

    The PQ-B is a 21 item scale which has a supplementary question if an item is endorsed. Designed to screen for psychosis and monitor symptom severity.